Pawn Endgames constitue a basis of all endings

One should study them most carefully, because each endgme can eventually transpose to pawn endgame. Despite their simplicity, Pawn endigns are very complicated and even masters oftem err on them...

Opposition

Two kings are in opposition when they are in same file, rank or diagonal when there are odd number of squeares separating them. While standing in opposition the turn to move most of the time is disadvantage...

Rule of Square

The rule of square enables one to quickly determine wheather or not a king can catch a pawn

Outside Passed pawn

A passed pawn that is most remote from the center called outside passed pawn. The possession of outside passed pawn is decisive advantage in pawn endings. The winning plan is simple and typical, You have to divert the weaker side to the advanced pawn and then attack with your own king on the other side of the board.

Corresponding squares, Triangulation

This is a difficult subject and not easy for begineers to undrestand and impliment. In some of the pawn endgame there are critical situations where some of the squares are corresponds to others, means the location of the kings should be exactly on those square in other for the weaker side to resist. In some of the cases the weaker side lack of having one or two corresponding square that cause lose of the game, however identifying those squares are not easy...

Use of Stalemate in Pawn Engams

Stalemate combinations occures in pawn endgames too and weaker side sometime can survive in a game where at first glance looks obvise losing position...

Shoulder Charging

In mathematics, the triangle inequality states that for any triangle, the sum of the lengths of any two sides must be greater than or equal to the length of the remaining side. But in chess it does not apply and we can get advantage of it, Take a look at the chess board and put a king on "a1" square, from a1 to a8 you can move straight step by step which take you 7 steps in total, alos you can go to b2,c3,d4, then c5,b6,a7 and a8 which again takes 7 steps...

There are many other subjects on pawn endgames such as breakthrough, Extra Space, Transition from Pawn to other Endgame, Transition from other endgame to pawn endgame etc.

Theory